Full coverage of the 2018 Ted Cruz vs. Beto O'Rourke Texas Senate debate.

By Tara Jons
09/24/2018 • 12:00 AM EST

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: Click or tap on any techniquesee definition - the definition will be displayed here.
that appears in bold to show its definition.
: proof by anecdotesee definition - making a broad generalization, based on an individual story or stories that support that generalization.
: O'Rourke argues the top concern for Booker, Texas residents is the fate of Dreamers, based on residents he and his wife spoke to going door-to-door.
: oversimplificationsee definition - treating a complex problem or subject with false simplicity by omitting or ignoring complicating factors or details.
: Cruz defines immigration as either good if it's legal, or bad if it's illegal, ignoring the complexity of the issue.
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: What O'Rourke actually voted for was barring the DoD from providing military weaponry (NOT including body armor) to local law enforcement.[2]
: misleading claimsee definition - a statement with a few elements or kernel of truth, which can easily be proven deceptive or fundamentally untrue.
: O'Rourke's Jim Crow comment was not just directed at police officers, but at the systematic mass incarceration of blacks in general.[4]
: virtue by associationsee definition - championing public symbols that carry respect, authority, sanction, and prestige to assume the respect, authority, sanction, and prestige of those symbols.
: The police.
: virtue by associationsee definition - championing public symbols that carry respect, authority, sanction, and prestige to assume the respect, authority, sanction, and prestige of those symbols.
: The police.
: misleading claimsee definition - a statement with a few elements or kernel of truth, which can easily be proven deceptive or fundamentally untrue.
: O'Rourke actually said that unarmed black men, teenagers, AND children are "being killed at a frightening level right now, INCLUDING by members of law enforcement." [5]
: virtue by associationsee definition - championing public symbols that carry respect, authority, sanction, and prestige to assume the respect, authority, sanction, and prestige of those symbols.
: The national anthem, the military, the flag.
: O'Rourke exposes the straw man.[6]
: dog whistlesee definition - ambiguous messaging used to stoke racial fear and anxiety and/or to covertly signal allegiance to certain subgroups of an audience.
: "Religious liberty" could be signaling support for exclusive primacy of the Christian faith.[7]
: exaggerationsee definition - stretching the truth, to make something seem more powerful or meaningful than it actually is.
: Cruz's actual role in Heller v. District of Columbia, was that he authored 1 of 70 briefs (which had little known effect on the outcome).[8]
: straw mansee definition - misrepresenting an opponent's position or argument to make it easier to attack, usually by exaggerating, distorting, or just completely fabricating it.
: While O'Rourke may support justices that would overturn Heller, he never indicated support for repealing the 2nd amendment.
: guilt by associationsee definition - using an opponent's links to another to assign the other's beliefs, misdeeds, or other unattractive qualities to the opponent.
: Cruz uses O'Rourke endorsement of Hillary Clinton to link O'Rourke to Clinton's support for limiting an individual's right to possess firearms.
: exaggerationsee definition - stretching the truth, to make something seem more powerful or meaningful than it actually is.
: It's not scientifically established that universal background checks ALONE reduce gun violence, separate from a broader system of gun laws and regulations.[10]
: appeal to false authoritysee definition - insisting something is true because someone posing as or being framed as an expert says it's true.
: Cruz cites the victims of school shootings as experts in advising on how to best reduce school shootings.
: appeal to false authoritysee definition - insisting something is true because someone posing as or being framed as an expert says it's true.
: O'Rourke cites the parent of a school shooting victim as an authority in knowing what works to protect those in school shootings.
: half truthsee definition - a statement that is essentially true, but lacking critical information and presented as the whole truth.
: Cruz mentions $300 million in cuts from school safety funding in 2010, while not mentioning Obama proposed $385 million for school safety in 2013.[11]
: fault as virtuesee definition - technique where a weakness is presented as a strength, by focusing on any positive aspect of it.
: Cruz characterizes his capitulation to Trump as the selflessness he's willing to undertake for the good of his constituents.
: fault as virtuesee definition - technique where a weakness is presented as a strength, by focusing on any positive aspect of it.
: O'Rourke spins his 1998 DWI arrest (where he did appear to try to leave the scene) as a testament to his making the most of his second chance.[12]
: fault as virtuesee definition - technique where a weakness is presented as a strength, by focusing on any positive aspect of it.
: O'Rourke spins his 1998 DWI arrest as an experience that makes him better able to identify with and fight for criminal justice reform for minorities.
: straw mansee definition - misrepresenting an opponent's position or argument to make it easier to attack, usually by exaggerating, distorting, or just completely fabricating it.
: While O'Rourke did call for a national debate on legalizing narcotics, he never indicated support for legalizing heroine, fentanyl, and cocaine.[13]
: Cruz now launches a debate against the straw man he just constructed.
: O'Rourke clarifies his position, but doesn't expose that he's been straw manned again.
: false equivalencysee definition - implying that two things are essentially the same, when they only have anecdotal similarities.
: Between the cost of a pre-ACA heath care plan (which has lower standards) and a post-ACA plan (which has to meet higher standards).
: proof by anecdotesee definition - making a broad generalization, based on an individual story or stories that support that generalization.
: O'Rourke argues that protections must be kept for preexisting conditions, based on people like Victor or Joey in Laredo, who have preexisting conditions.
: half truthsee definition - a statement that is essentially true, but lacking critical information and presented as the whole truth.
: Cruz's touts legislation that would allow healthy people to get cheaper non-ACA-compliant plans, without saying it would skyrocket the cost of ACA-compliant plans for those with preexisting conditions.[14]
: hyperbolesee definition - an extravagant statement or figure of speech used for effect, not intended to be taken literally.
: Characterizing levying economic tariffs as "going to war."
: labelingsee definition - pigeon-holing a person or group into a simple category and assigning names and/or beliefs to that category.
: Couched as praise, Cruz associates O'Rourke with socialism, expanding government, and higher taxes.
: labelingsee definition - pigeon-holing a person or group into a simple category and assigning names and/or beliefs to that category.
: Cruz associates O'Rourke with socialism, Bernie Sanders, and Ocasio-Cortez.

Cumulative total of the techniques detected over the 58:17 runtime of this video clip:


References
7. "How conservatives have changed the meaning of 'religious liberty'". The Washington Post. Published: August 02, 2018.

8. "How Ted Cruz Artfully Exaggerated His Gun-Rights Record". Vice.com. Published: February 19, 2016.