Techniques used by Ted Cruz

honor by association - championing public symbols that carry respect, authority, sanction, and prestige to assume the respect, authority, sanction, and prestige of those symbols. (6 uses)

half truth - a statement that is essentially true, but lacking critical information and presented as the whole truth. (5 uses)

misleading claim - a statement with a few elements or kernel of truth, which can easily be proven deceptive or fundamentally untrue. (4 uses)

labeling - pigeon-holing a person or group into a simple category and assigning names and/or beliefs to that category. (2 uses)

straw man - misrepresenting an opponent's position or argument to make it easier to attack, usually by exaggerating, distorting, or just completely fabricating it. (2 uses)

false claim - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue. (2 uses)

dog whistle - ambiguous messaging used to stoke racial fear and anxiety and/or to covertly signal allegiance to certain subgroups of an audience. (1 use)

anti-intellectualism - celebrating simple-mindedness and denigrating intellectuals or those with professional credentials as being idealistic, naive, or arrogant. (1 use)

euphemism - replacing accurate language that may be offensive with language that is more palatable, to instill a positive association. (1 use)

false dichotomy - giving the impression that there are only two opposing choices or options, while ignoring any middle ground exists between the two extremes. (1 use)

fault as virtue - technique where a weakness is presented as a strength, by focusing on any positive aspect of it. (1 use)

FUD - making dire warnings or raising doubt about an issue, while provided little or no specifics or evidence to support the claims. (1 use)

projection - accusing an opponent of using the same underhanded tactics or committing the same misdeeds the accuser is guilty of. (1 use)

appeal to anonymous authority - insisting something is true because an unnamed expert, study, or generalized group (like 'scientists') say it's true. (1 use)

exaggeration - stretching the truth, to make something seem more powerful or meaningful than it actually is. (1 use)

false equivalency - implying that two things are essentially the same, when they only have anecdotal similarities. (1 use)

the American people - promoting a position as having the overwhelming support of all Americans, while providing no evidence that it does. (1 use)

out of context - removing a passage or quote from its surrounding context in such a way as to distort its intended meaning. (1 use)

appeal to false authority - insisting something is true because someone posing as or being framed as an expert says it's true. (1 use)