Techniques used by Donald Trump

false claim - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue. (21 uses)

passing the buck - shifting blame onto someone else for self-exoneration or to direct attention away from those really at fault. (7 uses)

misleading claim - a statement with a few elements or kernel of truth, which can easily be proven deceptive or fundamentally untrue. (7 uses)

fault as virtue - technique where a weakness is presented as a strength, by focusing on any positive aspect of it. (6 uses)

labeling - pigeon-holing a person or group into a simple category and assigning names and/or beliefs to that category. (6 uses)

false equivalency - implying that two things are essentially the same, when they only have anecdotal similarities. (6 uses)

half truth - a statement that is essentially true, but lacking critical information and presented as the whole truth. (5 uses)

whataboutism - discrediting a criticism by accusing hypocrisy, in order to shift the focus away from oneself and onto others. (5 uses)

appeal to pity - portraying oneself as a victim in order to gain sympathy and manufacture justification for attacking your opponents. (5 uses)

honor by association - championing public symbols that carry respect, authority, sanction, and prestige to assume the respect, authority, sanction, and prestige of those symbols. (5 uses)

red herring - throwing an irrelevant fact into an argument to divert attention from the real issue at hand. (5 uses)

demonizing - characterizing a group or those who support an opposing viewpoint as threatening, immoral, or less than human. (4 uses)

guilt by association - using an opponent's links to another to assign the other's beliefs, misdeeds, or other unattractive qualities to the opponent. (4 uses)

post hoc - proclaiming that because something occurred after X, it was caused by X, when no causal relationship may exist at all. (4 uses)

appeal to anonymous authority - insisting something is true because an unnamed expert, study, or generalized group (like 'scientists') say it's true. (4 uses)

exaggeration - stretching the truth, to make something seem more powerful or meaningful than it actually is. (4 uses)

cherry picking - presenting only evidence that confirms your position, while ignoring or withholding a more significant portion that contradicts it. (3 uses)

false dichotomy - giving the impression that there are only two opposing choices or options, while ignoring any middle ground exists between the two extremes. (3 uses)

proof by anecdote - making a broad generalization, based on an individual story or stories that support that generalization. (3 uses)

the last word - getting in the final words in an exchange to take advantage of the cognitive bias to remember best what is heard last. (2 uses)

appeal to ignorance - raising doubt by suggesting something is true because it has not yet been proven false. (2 uses)

poisoning the well - discrediting your opponent to an audience in advance, in order to encourage dismissing any future claims they may make against you. (2 uses)

dog whistle - ambiguous messaging used to stoke racial fear and anxiety and/or to covertly signal allegiance to certain subgroups of an audience. (2 uses)

FUD - making dire warnings or raising doubt about an issue, while provided little or no specifics or evidence to support the claims. (2 uses)

scapegoating - placing unmerited blame on a person or group to channel societal resentment and frustration towards a common adversary or powerless victim. (2 uses)

virtue words - using words that are attractive to the value system of the target audience. (2 uses)

glittering generalities - vague words or phrases used to evoke positive emotional appeal, without presenting supporting information or reason. (2 uses)

enough with political correctness - rebranding the voicing of of racism, bigotry, and xenophobia as just telling it like it is. (2 uses)

innuendo - implying something without actually saying it, which can't be refuted because it wasn't actually said. (1 use)

ad nauseum - repeating a slogan or talking point over and over again, until it becomes perceived as truth. (1 use)

common folk - establishing a connection with an audience based on being just like one of them and therefore being able to empathize with their concerns. (1 use)

dysphemism - replacing neutral language with more derogatory or unpleasant terms, to instill a negative association. (1 use)

euphemism - replacing accurate language that may be offensive with language that is more palatable, to instill a positive association. (1 use)

trolling - making inflammatory or controversial comments to provoke a strong, emotional reaction from an opponent. (1 use)

straw man - misrepresenting an opponent's position or argument to make it easier to attack, usually by exaggerating, distorting, or just completely fabricating it. (1 use)

the big lie - telling and repeating a lie so bold and audacious that people will be inclined to think there must be some truth to it. (1 use)

loaded question - presenting a question that has a presumption of guilt built into it. (1 use)

adding qualifiers - adding an extra word or phrase to a response, which makes it ultimately meaningless, but still leaves the desired impression. (1 use)

baseless claim - a statement that is presented as accepted or established fact, but is wholly undecided or unsubstantiated. (1 use)

minimization - characterizing something that you don't want to address as trivial or insignificant, in order to shift the focus away from it and onto "more important" things. (1 use)

muddy the waters - bringing up irrelevant facts to confuse or complicate an issue, which may otherwise be relatively simple and easy to understand. (1 use)

demonizing the press - characterizing the press as the enemy, politically motivated, and dishonest. (1 use)