Full coverage of the final presidential debate of 2020, between Donald Trump and Joe Biden.

By Michael Gordon and Samy Amanatullah
11/12/2020 • 04:57 AM EST

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: Click or tap on any techniquesee definition - the definition will be displayed here.
that appears in bold to show its definition.
: misleading claimsee definition - a statement with a few elements or kernel of truth, which can easily be proven deceptive or fundamentally untrue.
: 2.2 million people in the U.S were expected to die, only if the country did nothing in response to the virus.[1]
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: The COVID spikes in Florida, Texas, and Arizona are not gone.[2][3]
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: A COVID-19 vaccine isn't ready and won't be announced in weeks.[4]
: proof by anecdotesee definition - making a broad generalization, based on an individual story or stories that support that generalization.
: Trump reassures people that they'll get better quickly from COVID because he got better quickly from COVID.
: appeal to anonymous authoritysee definition - insisting something is true because an unnamed expert, study, or generalized group (like 'scientists') say it's true.
: Many world leaders have praised Trump's COVID response, without specifying who those world leaders are.
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: New COVID-19 cases are dramatically increasing nationally.[5]
: false equivalencesee definition - implying that two things are essentially the same, when they only have anecdotal similarities.
: Between Obama's response to the swine flu and Trump's response to the much deadlier COVID-19 virus.[6]
: false dichotomysee definition - giving the impression that there are only two opposing choices or options, while ignoring any middle ground exists between the two extremes.
: Between total isolation or "learning to live with it," while ignoring any incremental approaches to protecting oneself against COVID.
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: On average, about 96% of people in the U.S. recover. Approximately 4% die.[7]
: passing the bucksee definition - shifting blame onto someone else for self-exoneration or to direct attention away from those really at fault.
: For the spread of COVID-19 in the U.S. onto China.
: misleading claimsee definition - a statement with a few elements or kernel of truth, which can easily be proven deceptive or fundamentally untrue.
: Biden took no official position on the China travel restrictions.[8]
: proof by anecdotesee definition - making a broad generalization, based on an individual story or stories that support that generalization.
: Trump reassures people that children will be fine even if they get COVID because his son was fine after he got COVID.
: false dichotomysee definition - giving the impression that there are only two opposing choices or options, while ignoring any middle ground exists between the two extremes.
: Between either opening the country or keeping is closed, while ignoring any incremental approach to mitigating COVID.
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: Fauci recommended not wearing masks to preserve PPE for health care providers and back in February he said the risk was "low,"
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: Trump got $13.8 million in campaign contributions from Wall Street.[5]
: saber-rattlingsee definition - making nonspecific threats of consequences to intimidate an adversary and/or impress an audience.
: Biden warns that any country interfering in a U.S. election will "pay a price," without specifying what that price would be.
: innuendosee definition - implying something without actually saying it, which can't be refuted because it wasn't actually said.
: Biden implies that Trump may be beholden to Putin.
: guilt by associationsee definition - using an opponent's links to another person or group to assign the other's beliefs, misdeeds, or other unattractive qualities to the opponent.
: Trump uses allegations made against Hunter Biden to identify Joe Biden with those allegations.[9]
: post hocsee definition - proclaiming that because something occurred after X, it was caused by X, when no causal relationship at all may exist.
: Taking credit for NATO spending increases, when NATO spending had already been increasing in response to Russia's seizure of Crimea in 2014.[9]
: appeal to ignorancesee definition - suggesting that something is true simply because it hasn’t yet been proven false.
: Trump suggests that the unproven allegations he's made against Biden must be true, unless Biden proves them to be false.[10]
: baseless claimsee definition - a bold statement that is presented as accepted or established fact, with no discernable evidence to support the claim.
: Trump pre-paid his taxes.[11]
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: The $750 "they keep talking about" is not a filing fee, but the amount Trump paid in federal income tax in 2016 and 2017.[11]
: appeal to pitysee definition - portraying oneself as a victim in order to gain sympathy and manufacture justification for attacking your opponents.
: appeal to pitysee definition - portraying oneself as a victim in order to gain sympathy and manufacture justification for attacking your opponents.
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: While the Mueller report doesn't conclude that Trump committed a crime, it found evidence of obstruction and criminal activity by others in the campaign.[9]
: FUDsee definition - raising uncertainty and doubt about an issue, while providing no specifics or actual evidence to support it.
: Suggesting that Biden's wealth is the result of illicit family member activity overseas funneling money back to Joe, when there's no evidence that it is.[9]
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: George Kent testified that Hunter's position at Burisma made him vulnerable to being used as a conduit for currying influence with Joe Biden.[12]
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: Trump never disclosed the Chinese bank account and it remains open.[9]
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: The China trade deficit has gone down, not up, to slightly below where it was during the end of Obama's term.
: misleading claimsee definition - a statement with a few elements or kernel of truth, which can easily be proven deceptive or fundamentally untrue.
: The steel tariffs have hurt demand and cost jobs, to where the steel industry now employs 1,900 fewer workers than it did when Trump took office.[13]
: the last wordsee definition - getting in the final words in an exchange to take advantage of the cognitive bias to remember best what is heard last.
: false dichotomysee definition - giving the impression that there are only two opposing choices or options, while ignoring any middle ground exists between the two extremes.
: Between being in a nuclear war with North Korea or being on friendly terms, while ignoring any middle-ground position.
: passing the bucksee definition - shifting blame onto someone else for self-exoneration or to direct attention away from those really at fault.
: For escalating tensions with North Korea onto the Obama administration.
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: Trump efforts to strike down the ACA would allow insurers once again to deny coverage for those with preexisting conditions.[9]
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: Biden has no plans to terminate any private insurance policies.[5]
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: Approximately 4 million Americans lost their private plans under Obamacare, when it first kicked in.[14]
: appeal to anonymous authoritysee definition - insisting something is true because an unnamed expert, study, or generalized group (like 'scientists') say it's true.
: The biggest analysts are saying the market's fate rests entirely with Trump, without specifying which analysts are saying that.[15]
: common folksee definition - connecting with an audience by showing that you understand and share their everyday experiences and concerns.
: passing the bucksee definition - shifting blame onto someone else for self-exoneration or to direct attention away from those really at fault.
: For the failure to pass a COVID relief bill onto Pelosi.
: misleading claimsee definition - a statement with a few elements or kernel of truth, which can easily be proven deceptive or fundamentally untrue.
: McConnell said he would "be in favor of allowing states to use the bankruptcy route."
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: A 2019 CBO report did find that a minimum wage hike to $15 hour could cost 1.3 million jobs.[16]
: passing the bucksee definition - shifting blame onto someone else for self-exoneration or to direct attention away from those really at fault.
: For 500+ immigrant family separations, where they can't find the parents, onto coyotes, cartels, and other bad people.
: half truthsee definition - a statement that is essentially true, but lacking critical information and presented as the whole truth.
: Trump mentions "over 400 miles of brand new wall," without mentioning that only 15 miles of that is where none had previously existed.[5]
: whataboutismsee definition - discrediting a criticism by accusing hypocrisy, in order to shift the focus away from oneself and onto others.
: Trump shifts the focus from his harsh treatment of illegal immigrants to Obama's harsh treatment of illegal immigrants.[17]
: whataboutismsee definition - discrediting a criticism by accusing hypocrisy, in order to shift the focus away from oneself and onto others.
: Trump again shifts the focus from his harsh treatment of illegal immigrants to Obama's harsh treatment of illegal immigrants.[17]
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: About 50% of those that are caught and released come back to appear for immigration hearings.[5]
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: The phrase "super-predators" was uttered by Hillary Clinton, not Biden.[5]
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: Besides Lincoln, LBJ did more for the Black community, signing monumental bills whose impact dwarfed that of any legislation signed by Trump.[18]
: labelingsee definition - pigeon-holing a person or group into a simple category and assigning names and/or beliefs to that category.
: Trump uses Biden's many years in public service to cast him as a typical ineffectual politician.
: appeal to ignorancesee definition - suggesting that something is true simply because it hasn’t yet been proven false.
: Trump suggests that the allegations against Biden are true, because they haven't yet been proven false.
: whataboutismsee definition - discrediting a criticism by accusing hypocrisy, in order to shift the focus away from oneself and onto others.
: Trump shifts the focus from the things he's said that encourage hate and violence to something chanted at a BLM protest in 2015 that encouraged hate and violence.[19]
: labelingsee definition - pigeon-holing a person or group into a simple category and assigning names and/or beliefs to that category.
: Trump uses Biden's many years in public service to cast him as a typical ineffectual politician.
: labelingsee definition - pigeon-holing a person or group into a simple category and assigning names and/or beliefs to that category.
: Trump uses Biden's many years in public service to cast him as a typical ineffectual politician.
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: The U.S. is not energy independent and continues to import millions of barrels of oil per day.[9]
: misleading claimsee definition - a statement with a few elements or kernel of truth, which can easily be proven deceptive or fundamentally untrue.
: Even taking manufacturing emissions for wind turbines into account, wind power is far cleaner than natural gas.[20]
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: On numerous occasions, Biden has said he opposed fracking in one form or another.[21]
: straw mansee definition - misrepresenting an opponent's position or argument to make it easier to attack, usually by exaggerating, distorting, or just completely fabricating it.
: Biden does want to raise taxes, but ONLY on those making over $400,000 a year.[5]
: virtue wordssee definition - using words that are attractive to the value system of the target audience.
: character, decency, honor, respect, dignity.

Total number of techniques detected over the 1:43:42 runtime of this video clip:


References
1. "How many coronavirus deaths are truly attributable to Trump?". The Washington Post. Published: October 23, 2020.

2. "Some hospitals in crisis as US nears high for COVID-19 cases". AP News. Published: October 23, 2020.

3. "Trump says virus spike 'gone' in Texas while El Paso surges". AP News. Published: October 24, 2020.

4. "Fact check: COVID-19 vaccine won't be ready in weeks, nor mandatory". USA Today. Published: October 24, 2020.

5. "FactChecking the Final 2020 Presidential Debate". FactCheck.org. Published: October 23, 2020.

7. "U.S. Corona Virus Cases". Worldometer. Published: October 30, 2020.

9. "Fact-checking the second Trump-Biden debate". The Washington Post. Published: October 23, 2020.