Full coverage of the final presidential debate of 2020, between Donald Trump and Joe Biden.

By Michael Gordon and Samy Amanatullah
11/12/2020 • 04:57 AM EST

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: Click or tap on any techniquesee definition - the definition will be displayed here.
that appears in bold to show its definition.
: misleading claimsee definition - a statement with a few elements or kernel of truth, which can easily be proven deceptive or fundamentally untrue.
: 2.2 million people in the U.S were expected to die, if the country did literally nothing in response to the virus.[1]
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: The COVID spikes in Florida, Texas, and Arizona are not gone.[2][3]
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: A COVID-19 vaccine isn't ready and won't be announced in weeks.[4]
: proof by anecdotesee definition - making a broad generalization, based on an individual story or stories that support that generalization.
: Trump reassures Americans that they will get better quickly from COVID, based on his own experience with it.
: appeal to anonymous authoritysee definition - insisting something is true because an unnamed expert, study, or generalized group (like 'scientists') say it's true.
: "The heads of many countries" have praised Trump's COVID response, while not identifying who any of these world leaders are.
: reversal of realitysee definition - a statement that is not only verifiably false, but is the exact opposite of the truth.
: Not only is it not going away, but new COVID-19 cases are dramatically increasing nationally.[5]
: false equivalencysee definition - implying that two things are essentially the same, when they only have anecdotal similarities.
: Between Obama's response to the swine flu and Trump's response to the much deadlier COVID-19, which he acknowledges but makes the comparison anyway.[6]
: false dichotomysee definition - giving the impression that there are only two opposing choices or options, while ignoring any middle ground exists between the two extremes.
: Between total isolation, to avoid getting COVID, or "learning to live with it" and going about everyday life, while ignoring the existence of a middle-ground.
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: On average, about 96% of people in the U.S. recover. Approximately 4% die.[7]
: passing the bucksee definition - shifting blame onto someone else for self-exoneration or to direct attention away from those really at fault.
: For the spread of COVID-19 in the U.S. onto China.
: misleading claimsee definition - a statement with a few elements or kernel of truth, which can easily be proven deceptive or fundamentally untrue.
: Biden took no official position on the China travel restrictions.[8]
: proof by anecdotesee definition - making a broad generalization, based on an individual story or stories that support that generalization.
: Trump reassures Americans that they will get better quickly from COVID, based on his young son's experience with it.
: false dichotomysee definition - giving the impression that there are only two opposing choices or options, while ignoring any middle ground exists between the two extremes.
: Between either opening the country or keeping is closed, while ignoring there's a middle-ground approach to mitigating COVID.
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: Fauci recommended not wearing masks to preserve PPE for health care providers and back in February he said the risk was "low,"
: baseless claimsee definition - a statement that is presented as accepted or established fact, but is wholly undecided or unsubstantiated.
: Trump declares that he could do his campaign fundraising by calling the rich people he knows, when there's no evidence that he can.
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: Trump got $13.8 million in campaign contributions from Wall Street.[5]
: saber-rattlingsee definition - making nonspecific threats of consequences to intimidate an adversary and/or impress an audience.
: Biden warns that any country interfering in a U.S. election will "pay a price," without specifying what that price would be.
: innuendosee definition - implying something without actually saying it, which can't be refuted because it wasn't actually said.
: Biden implies that Trump may be beholden to Putin.
: guilt by associationsee definition - using an opponent's links to another to assign the other's beliefs, misdeeds, or other unattractive qualities to the opponent.
: Trump uses allegations made again Biden's son Hunter to launch the same allegations against Joe.[9]
: post hocsee definition - proclaiming that because something occurred after X, it was caused by X, when no causal relationship may exist at all.
: Trump takes credit for NATO spending increases, when NATO spending had already been increasing in response to Russia's seizure of Crimea in 2014.[9]
: appeal to ignorancesee definition - raising doubt by suggesting something is true because it has not yet been proven false.
: Trump suggests that the many unproven allegations he's made against Biden must be true, unless Biden proves them to be false.[10]
: whataboutismsee definition - discrediting a criticism by accusing hypocrisy, in order to shift the focus away from oneself and onto others.
: Biden shifts the focus from allegations of him taking foreign money to Trump taking foreign money.
: baseless claimsee definition - a statement that is presented as accepted or established fact, but is wholly undecided or unsubstantiated.
: While pre-paying taxes is possible, there's no evidence to suggest that Trump pre-paid his taxes.[11]
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: The $750 "they keep talking about" is not a filing fee, but the amount Trump paid in federal income tax in 2016 and 2017.[11]
: appeal to pitysee definition - portraying oneself as a victim in order to gain sympathy and manufacture justification for attacking your opponents.
: appeal to pitysee definition - portraying oneself as a victim in order to gain sympathy and manufacture justification for attacking your opponents.
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: While the Mueller report doesn't conclude that Trump committed a crime, it found evidence of obstruction and criminal activity by others in the campaign.[9]
: guilt by associationsee definition - using an opponent's links to another to assign the other's beliefs, misdeeds, or other unattractive qualities to the opponent.
: Trump uses allegations made again Biden's family to launch the same allegations against Joe Biden. [9].
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: George Kent testified that Hunter's position at Burisma made him vulnerable to being used as a conduit for currying influence with Joe Biden.[12]
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: Trump never disclosed the Chinese bank account and it remains open.[9]
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: The China trade deficit has gone down, not up, to slightly below where it was during the end of Obama's term.
: misleading claimsee definition - a statement with a few elements or kernel of truth, which can easily be proven deceptive or fundamentally untrue.
: The steel tariffs have hurt demand and cost jobs, to where the steel industry now employs 1,900 fewer workers than it did when Trump took office.[13]
: the last wordsee definition - getting in the final words in an exchange to take advantage of the cognitive bias to remember best what is heard last.
: false dichotomysee definition - giving the impression that there are only two opposing choices or options, while ignoring any middle ground exists between the two extremes.
: Between being in a nuclear war with North Korea or being on friendly terms, while ignoring the option of being neither.
: passing the bucksee definition - shifting blame onto someone else for self-exoneration or to direct attention away from those really at fault.
: For escalating tensions with North Korea onto the Obama administration.
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: Trump efforts to strike down the ACA would allow insurers once again to deny coverage for those with preexisting conditions.[9]
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: Biden has no plans to terminate any private insurance policies.[5]
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: Approximately 4 million Americans lost their private plans under Obamacare, when it first kicked in.[14]
: labelingsee definition - pigeon-holing a person or group into a simple category and assigning names and/or beliefs to that category.
: Trump associates Biden's health care plan with socialism.
: labelingsee definition - pigeon-holing a person or group into a simple category and assigning names and/or beliefs to that category.
: Trump again associates Biden's health care plan with socialism.
: fear-mongeringsee definition - making frightening and exaggerated warnings of impending danger to arouse fear and diminish rationality about an issue.
: Having a public option for health insurance would destroy Medicare, Social Security, and the whole country.
: misleading claimsee definition - a statement with a few elements or kernel of truth, which can easily be proven deceptive or fundamentally untrue.
: The chief actuary did say that, but the Trump campaign says there's no plan to eliminate the payroll tax, even though Trump has said he would.[15]
: appeal to anonymous authoritysee definition - insisting something is true because an unnamed expert, study, or generalized group (like 'scientists') say it's true.
: "The biggest analysts" are saying the market's fate rests entirely with Trump, while not identifying who any of those analysts are.[16]
: common folksee definition - establishing a connection with an audience based on being just like one of them and therefore being able to empathize with their concerns.
: passing the bucksee definition - shifting blame onto someone else for self-exoneration or to direct attention away from those really at fault.
: For the failure to pass a COVID relief bill onto Pelosi.
: misleading claimsee definition - a statement with a few elements or kernel of truth, which can easily be proven deceptive or fundamentally untrue.
: McConnell said he would "be in favor of allowing states to use the bankruptcy route."
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: A 2019 CBO report did find that a minimum wage hike to $15 hour could cost 1.3 million jobs.[17]
: passing the bucksee definition - shifting blame onto someone else for self-exoneration or to direct attention away from those really at fault.
: For 500+ immigrant family separations, where they can't find the parents, onto coyotes, cartels, and other bad people.
: half truthsee definition - a statement that is essentially true, but lacking critical information and presented as the whole truth.
: Trump mentions "over 400 miles of brand new wall,"
: whataboutismsee definition - discrediting a criticism by accusing hypocrisy, in order to shift the focus away from oneself and onto others.
: Trump shifts the focus from his policy of family separation to Obama's building of the holding facilities.[18]
: whataboutismsee definition - discrediting a criticism by accusing hypocrisy, in order to shift the focus away from oneself and onto others.
: Trump again shifts the focus from his policy of family separation to Obama's building of the holding facilities.[18]
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: About half of those that are caught and released come back to appear for immigration hearings.[5]
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: The phrase "super-predators" was uttered by Hillary Clinton, not Biden.[5]
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: Besides Lincoln, LBJ did more for the Black community, signing monumental bills whose impact dwarfed that of any legislation signed by Trump.[19]
: labelingsee definition - pigeon-holing a person or group into a simple category and assigning names and/or beliefs to that category.
: Trump uses Biden's many years in public service to characterize him as a typical ineffectual politician.
: appeal to ignorancesee definition - raising doubt by suggesting something is true because it has not yet been proven false.
: Trump suggests that the allegations against Biden are true because they haven't yet been proven false.
: whataboutismsee definition - discrediting a criticism by accusing hypocrisy, in order to shift the focus away from oneself and onto others.
: Trump shifts the focus from the racially incendiary things he's said, to an incendiary thing said at a BLM protest.[20]
: labelingsee definition - pigeon-holing a person or group into a simple category and assigning names and/or beliefs to that category.
: Trump uses Biden's many years in public service to characterize him as a typical ineffectual politician.
: labelingsee definition - pigeon-holing a person or group into a simple category and assigning names and/or beliefs to that category.
: Trump uses Biden's many years in public service to characterize him as a typical ineffectual politician.
: straw mansee definition - misrepresenting an opponent's position or argument to make it easier to attack, usually by exaggerating, distorting, or just completely fabricating it.
: The figures and details Trump sites are for the Green New Deal, not Biden's economic plan.[5]
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: The U.S. is not energy independent and continues to import millions of barrels of oil per day.[9]
: misleading claimsee definition - a statement with a few elements or kernel of truth, which can easily be proven deceptive or fundamentally untrue.
: Even taking manufacturing emissions for wind turbines into account, wind power is far cleaner than natural gas.[21]
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: On numerous occasions, Biden has said he opposed fracking in one form or another.[22]
: straw mansee definition - misrepresenting an opponent's position or argument to make it easier to attack, usually by exaggerating, distorting, or just completely fabricating it.
: While Biden wants to raises taxes, he only wants to raise them on those making over $400,000 a year.[5]
: fear-mongeringsee definition - making frightening and exaggerated warnings of impending danger to arouse fear and diminish rationality about an issue.
: If Biden gets elected there will be an economic depression like no one has ever seen, everyone's 401Ks will go to hell, and it will be very sad for the country.
: virtue wordssee definition - using words that are attractive to the value system of the target audience.
: character, decency, honor, respect, dignity.

Cumulative total of the techniques detected over the 1:43:42 runtime of this video clip:


References
1. "How many coronavirus deaths are truly attributable to Trump?". The Washington Post. Published: October 23, 2020.

2. "Some hospitals in crisis as US nears high for COVID-19 cases". AP News. Published: October 23, 2020.

3. "Trump says virus spike 'gone' in Texas while El Paso surges". AP News. Published: October 24, 2020.

4. "Fact check: COVID-19 vaccine won't be ready in weeks, nor mandatory". USA Today. Published: October 24, 2020.

5. "FactChecking the Final 2020 Presidential Debate". FactCheck.org. Published: October 23, 2020.

7. "U.S. Corona Virus Cases". Worldometer. Published: October 30, 2020.

9. "Fact-checking the second Trump-Biden debate". The Washington Post. Published: October 23, 2020.

22. "Fact check: Biden falsely claims he never opposed fracking". CNN Politics. Published: October 23, 2020.