Full coverage of the first presidential debate of 2016, between Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump.

By Jon Wright Fay
10/12/2016 • 03:21 AM EST

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: Click or tap on any techniquesee definition - the definition will be displayed here.
that appears in bold to show its definition.
: slogansee definition - a brief, striking phrase that people will remember, which typically acts on emotional appeals.
: Trump's economic plan is "Trumped-up trickle-down."
: common folksee definition - establishing a connection with an audience based on being just like one of them and therefore being able to empathize with their concerns.
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: After examining more than 100,000 confidential documents, the NY Times concluded that the "small loan" was actually $60.7 million.[1]
: half truthsee definition - a statement that is essentially true, but lacking critical information and presented as the whole truth.
: Trump mentions the 16% VAT tax paid by U.S. companies in Mexico, but fails to mention Mexican companies pay the exact same 16% VAT tax in Mexico.[2]
: norm of reciprocitysee definition - the principle of human nature that makes people feel obligated to give back, when they're given something, even if the something given wasn't asked for or wanted.
: By getting Clinton to follow his lead, he makes anything he says after seem more irrefutable.
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: Trump tweeted, "The concept of global warming was created by and for the Chinese in order to make U.S. manufacturing non-competitive."
: loaded questionsee definition - presenting a question that has a presumption of guilt built into it.
: guilt by associationsee definition - using an opponent's links to another to assign the other's beliefs, misdeeds, or other unattractive qualities to the opponent.
: Trump uses Clinton's ties to her husband, to link her to the passing of NAFTA.
: adding qualifierssee definition - adding an extra word or phrase to a response, which makes it ultimately meaningless, but still leaves the desired impression.
: Clinton was against it "once it was it was finally negotiated," which isn't saying she was against it the entire time before she started running for president.[3]
: glittering generalitiessee definition - vague words or phrases used to evoke positive emotional appeal, without presenting supporting information or reason.
: About "regulations on top of regulations" (no specifics provided) and new companies not forming and old companies closing, and him cutting taxes big league and her raising taxes big league, end of story.
: slogansee definition - a brief, striking phrase that people will remember, which typically acts on emotional appeals.
: Trump's tax proposal is "the Trump loophole."
: labelingsee definition - pigeon-holing a person or group into a simple category and assigning names and/or beliefs to that category.
: Trump labels Clinton as a stereotypical ineffective politician.
: red herringsee definition - throwing one irrelevant fact into an argument to divert attention from the real issue at hand.
: Trump brings up his public financial disclosure report, obligatory for all presidential candidates, to divert attention away from his unreleased tax returns, and then diverts again to how his earnings are emblematic of his business acumen.[5]
: false equivalencysee definition - implying that two things are essentially the same, when they only have anecdotal similarities.
: Between Trump's tax returns, which he can release anytime he chooses, and Clinton's emails, which she can't release because she had them deleted.
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: In the tax returns that anyone has seen from Trump, he has paid federal income tax for three out of five years from 1975 to 1979.[3]
: euphemismsee definition - replacing accurate language that may be offensive with language that is more palatable, to instill a positive association.
: The term "mistake" (an unintentional act) to describe Clinton's intentional use of a private email server, while she was Secretary of State.
: fault as virtuesee definition - technique where a weakness is presented as a strength, by focusing on any positive aspect of it.
: Trump recasts his great wealth, not as a symbol of his elite status, but as emblematic of his business acumen.
: guilt by associationsee definition - using an opponent's links to another to assign the other's beliefs, misdeeds, or other unattractive qualities to the opponent.
: Trump uses Clinton's status as a politician, to link her to the failings or missteps of all politicians.
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: Trump did file for bankruptcies six (not four) times.[3]
: dog whistlesee definition - ambiguous messaging used to stoke racial fear and anxiety and/or to covertly signal allegiance to certain subgroups of an audience.
: "Law and order" could be used to stoke racial anxiety about crime in low-income communities and civil disobedience from people of color.[8]
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: While crime has continued to drop under the current mayor, there was a 5.7% rise in murders, since ending stop and frisk.[3]
: fault as virtuesee definition - technique where a weakness is presented as a strength, by focusing on any positive aspect of it.
: Trump spins his spreading the false rumor that Obama was born in Kenya as something to be proud of, since it forced him to produce evidence to the contrary.
: fault as virtuesee definition - technique where a weakness is presented as a strength, by focusing on any positive aspect of it.
: This time Trump spins his spreading the false rumor about Obama as a great service to not only the country, but Obama too, by forcing him to produce his birth certificate.
: whataboutismsee definition - discrediting a criticism by accusing hypocrisy, in order to shift the focus away from oneself and onto others.
: Trump shifts the focus from him playing racial politics with Obama to Clinton playing racial politics with Obama.
: proof by anecdotesee definition - making a broad generalization, based on an individual story or stories that support that generalization.
: Trump argues that since he didn't racially discriminate at his club in Palm Beach, it proves he doesn't racially discriminate.
: straw mansee definition - misrepresenting an opponent's position or argument to make it easier to attack, usually by exaggerating, distorting, or just completely fabricating it.
: While Trump did invite the Russians to find Clinton's 30,000 deleted emails, he did not invite them to hack into any Americans, other than Hillary Clinton.[10]
: misleading claimsee definition - a statement with a few elements or kernel of truth, which can easily be proven deceptive or fundamentally untrue.
: ICE, the federal agency, didn't endorse Trump, rather a union representing 5,000 federal immigration officers did.[11]
: misleading claimsee definition - a statement with a few elements or kernel of truth, which can easily be proven deceptive or fundamentally untrue.
: 73% is how much the U.S. spends on its own military, compared to other alliance countries. The U.S. actually pays about 22% of the NATO budget.[12]
: false claimsee definition - a statement that is directly contradicted by fact and can be easily proven untrue.
: Trump's public stance against the Iraq War did not occur until August 2004 (a year after the war started), before which he was either noncommittal or supported it.[13]
: fault as virtuesee definition - technique where a weakness is presented as a strength, by focusing on any positive aspect of it.
: Trump equates winning with having a good temperament, to argue that he has a good temperament and that Clinton doesn't.
: exaggerationsee definition - stretching the truth, to make something seem more powerful or meaningful than it actually is.
: Although Clinton played a major role, she wasn't solely responsible for imposing international sanctions against Iran.[14]
: innuendosee definition - implying something without actually saying it, which can't be refuted because it wasn't actually said.
: Clinton implies that Trump wouldn't honor mutual defense treaties, without actually saying he wouldn't.
: innuendosee definition - implying something without actually saying it, which can't be refuted because it wasn't actually said.
: Clinton now implies Trump is a bully, without actually saying it.
: euphemismsee definition - replacing accurate language that may be offensive with language that is more palatable, to instill a positive association.
: The term "stamina" used to replace the word "look," which was the word Trump actually used in his past statement.[15]
: the last wordsee definition - getting in the final words in an exchange to take advantage of the cognitive bias to remember best what is heard last.
: Trump gets in the last word to both rob Clinton of a rhetorical victory and recast her experience as a weakness.

Cumulative total of the techniques detected over the 1:38:58 runtime of this video clip:


References
1. "Trump's false claim he built his empire with a 'small loan' from his father". The Washington Post. Published: March 03, 2016.

2. "Here's What Donald Trump Got Wrong About Mexico's Taxes". Time. Published: October 02, 2016.

3. "FactChecking the First Debate". FactCheck.org. Published: September 27, 2016.

7. "Mortality from Homicide among Young Black Men: A New American Tragedy". The American Journal of Medicine. Published: January 17, 2013.

9. "Fraternal Order of Police union endorses Trump". The Washington Post. Published: September 16, 2016.

10. "Trump Invited the Russians to Hack Clinton. Were They Listening?". The New York Times. Published: July 13, 2018.

11. "Donald Trump says ICE endorsed him". Politifact. Published: October 09, 2016.

12. "Distorted NATO Funding Figure". FactCheck.org. Published: December 14, 2017.

13. "Was Trump Against the Iraq War from the Beginning?". Snopes.com. Published: September 27, 2016.

14. "Hillary Clinton says she helped usher Iran to the negotiating table". Politifact. Published: November 23, 2015.

15. "Donald Trump Says Hillary Clinton Doesn't Have 'a Presidential Look'". The New York Times. Published: September 06, 2016.